In today post we will talk about Azure Audit Logs and retention policies. Because retention policies might differ from one industry to another, different approaches are required.
From my past experience, I know that each company and department might understand a different thing when you say Audit Logs. I was involved in projects where when you tag a log as audit you would be required by law to keep the audit log for 20-25 years.
In this context, I think that the first step for us is to define what is an Audit Log in Azure. In Azure, most of the audit logs can be an activity log or a deployment operation.
The first one is close related to any write operation that happened on your Azure Resource (post, put, delete). Read operations are not considered activity logs – but don’t be disappointed, there are many Azure Services that provided monitoring mechanism for read operation also (for example Azure Storage).
The second type of audits are the one generated during a deployment operation. Actions like creating, deleting or modifying of your Azure Resources are fully audited.
The default retention policy is 90 days. During this period, we can use the Activity Logs feature from the Monitor section of the portal to look on what happened on our subscriptions in the last 90 days. After this period, the audit information is automatically deleted.
There is no configuration that would allow us to increase or decrease this period.
Of course, this data can be exported using the available API. The biggest problem is not how you can export audit information, but where...
There are so many different types of storages and services that can be used for this purpose that it is hard to decide what you want to use. Do you want to push them in Azure Tables, Azure Blobs, Azure Data Lake, Azure SQL, Azure DocumentDB, and many more…
Where to store it?
There is no perfect location. There are two important questions that you need to find response before thinking about a solution.
For how long I need to keep the audit logs? & How often I need to access them?
The response of these two questions will influence your approach. I tried to identify 4 main scenarios, that are pretty common and can help us to make an idea on what is the best approach.
- Scenario 1: Store them for 90 days, with good query capability
- Scenario 2: Store them for 2 years, with a medium level of query capability
- Scenario 3: Store them for 5 years, with good query capability at the beginning, but after 2 years query capability is not so important anymore
- Scenario 4: Store them for 20 years as cheap as possible, without caring about query capabilities (low level of query)
Scenario 1: Store them for 90 days, with good query capability
This is a no brain situation. By default, the audit is stored for 90 days inside Azure. Beside this the Activity Logs resource blade from Monitor allows us to execute complex queries over this information.
Scenario 2: Store them for 2 years, with a medium level of query capability
Starting from this scenario own, there are multiple solutions for the same case. There is no wrong solution, because requirements can be different and force the architecture team to find a solution as close as possible to the business requirements.
For situations like this, when you need to store audit data for 2 years and you need query capability I would look at OMS (Operations Management Suite). This service offer monitor capability for cloud and on-premises environments.
There are two powerful features of OMS that transform this service to a good candidate for this use case.
First of all, it allows us to specify different data sources from where data (audit data) can be fetch. As data source, we can specify as data source the log analytics collections from Azure Diagnostics and Azure Monitor. The audit data are stored in the OMS in his own OMS Repository for 2 years.
Secondly, for 2 years the data is searchable inside the OMS using the UI support from OMS. This means that we have query capabilities without having to implement anything.
This scenario can be supported easily with only some configuration actions that needs to be done for OMS data source.
Scenario 3: Store them for 5 years, with good query capability at the beginning, but after 2 years query capability is not so important anymore
My assumption is that even if after 2 years, query capabilities are not so important anymore, there are still some query requirements.
The proposed solution is based on the previews solution, from Scenario 2, where we used OMS to store and offer query capabilities for the first 2 years. The difference is that in parallel with OMS all audit logs would be pushed to Azure Data Lake, where a 5 years retention policy would be specified. Azure Data Lake allows us to specify for how long we want to store data, a very useful feature especially for situations like this.
On top of Azure Data Lake an HDInsight or any other big data processing system would be configured to allow us to execute queries on top of our data. The query will not run in real-time but it should offer good query capabilities and also keeping the running cost low.
It is important to specify that the audit data would be moved in both storages (OMS and Azure Data Lake) from the begging. I prefer this approach even if I have duplicated data to have a simpler reporting and query mechanism. Otherwise I would need to query both storages and consolidate the results. This could easily generate misleading information.
Scenario 4: Store them for 20 years as cheap as possible, without caring about query capabilities (low level of query)
This situation is common for companies that are enforced by law to keep audit data for a specific time period. They don’t care about how easily data can be retried and cases when data needs to be accessed is isolated.
For these situations, the focus is to find a storage that is extremely cheap and has a good redundancy policy. Azure Cool Blob Storage is a good candidate. Extremely cheap, has a good redundancy policy and when needed we can access it easily like any other blob storage.
For this scenario, as for the previous one where we used Azure Data lake we will need a mechanism to move the audit data to our storages. This can be done using an Azure Function that is triggered as specific time interval and moves the new content produced in the last x hours to the storage.
We need to be careful how we store data in Cool Blob Storage. Data needs to be stored in a such a way that would allow us to access it later on in time with a minimal effort. Grouping data based on time, regions, department can be useful.
On top of Azure Cool Blob Storage, we can use with success a system like HDInsight to crunch data when needed.
In this moment in time there is no support for auto-deletion, similar to the one offered in Azure Data Lake. We will need to define a mechanism that runs every month or year and remove data that is older than 20 years. The good news is that these feature is already planned and I expect to see it pretty soon available (https://feedback.azure.com/forums/217298-storage/suggestions/2474308-provide-time-to-live-feature-for-blobs)
The above solutions are just some approaches for these 4 scenarios. There are multiple ways to resolve this problem. I consider that the most important thing that we need to take into account is that there are multiple Azure Services that can help us to resolve our problems. We need to keep our radar on and select the ones that suites our needs.